Various advice and tricks

Tricks for TV serviceman:

- Protect TDA3576 from the burning (Gorenje TV) 
      The divergent pin 11 (the out) from the resistor 300R. Put in BC327 with the base on the pin 11 and emitter on 300R. Collector BC327 join on the mass. Add the diode BA157 with the anode on the mass and cathode on the emitter BC327.
     This protection has been checked and 100 % protects at the breaking out VN cascades! Schema

- Repair the bad contact rubbers of the remote control 
     Use the gold-plated wire 0.1mm and make the small jumper which will drive in across weak rubbers. Take care of on the orientation. Wrong plug in dont make connection.
     Warning: do not use fatter wires because these will destroy printed conduits, do not use copper wire. For jumper uses the only material which do not oxidize. The gold-plated bronze wire has measured 0.1mm adequately good. Alternative is and unoxidized cekas sponges measures 0.1mm (but is not elastic and difficultly puts up). Sees herself the intersection.
     This method successfully are repair more than 200 remote controls!
     The every loss of contact on repariranoj the key necessary comes from the dirt. Therefore more often recommend the cleaning and usage protective foils across the remote control.
     For the possible damage do not respond!

     The another method of reparation of bad contact is the simple and arches to that that AL foil sticked on one side two-sided sticky foils. Then scissors cuts up on the size keys and reverse glues on the cleaned rubber key (of course inside). Cleaning is necessary necessary because otherwise all come off. Cleans can make with alcohol or the wash brush in bath with the solution approximately 2dl hotter waters and spoon of Ariel. In the same solution and was able later will wash enclosure. Advantage this methods is that there is no damages of conduits on the little plate of the this remote possible endless way renews. Lack is that in the event of small surfaces of rubber keys can gets at drop out. For the cutting out of glued on foil was able will use and punch of paper (for the insertion in the file folder).

-  Problems with isolated transistors 
     In last a few year often happens that housings completely isolated transistors (e.g. 2SD1651, 2SD2539, S2000N, etc.) absolutely have not flatten. This easily can check and at purchases so that hold on to with two fingers pair of such transistors. Backs let them introvert. Catching for the last third lengths were able most often see herself set to work on the other end have not been joined (turn around them towards the light). Backs are them lightly are made round. You help replacements of transistors in the shop because are all such. Fitting in of such transistors in complexes risk that cancel at short notice. Already alone thus what is in plastics, cooling of semiconductor become worse, and when there is no the good contact with the base, this yet worse. One from the solution is and use of silicone isolators, but thus also worsens the thermal conductivity. When uses the heat conductive paste, solution is only in the level of background of transistors. This easily was able make with the polishing paper glued on the straight surface (the piece glass). Will need you determined experience that get the flat background. If irregularly work, make worse. Anyway, avoid sharpen forward  - back. Also, instead of the pressure point on the transistor dont require will change. Requires pay attention that the surface of grinding paper may be higher on places where less sharpen these this also influences on the poor result. Check can make again on the glass. Put the small drop waters (approximately 3mm3^) on the glass and press back of transistors on her. When the surface would be ideally the flat drop was spreads along the whole back (what sees himself through the glass). This procedure uses already for years because are then sure that will be built in semiconductors work for years without problem with the overheating. On the lower picture look the surface overlap (darkly) after level of transistors 2SD2539. Transistor press tiny drop waters on the glass. The used glass does not see herself because is transparent.
Poravnata površina izoliranog tranzistora

Tricks For experts in electronics: 

- Limit current the short-circuiting of transformer (220V~)
     Simple insertion inductor in the primary coil transformer were able limit the maximal primary current, and thus and secondary. For the inductor was able choose the low cost inductor for 40W fluo pipe (Imax0,4A=). Combination two inductors (the series, parallel, only one) was able roughly will be regulated maximal current primary coils. Current of secondaries is so much times larger, how is the voltage of secondaries smaller from voltages of primary coils.
     The such limit current is appropriate for the experiment when safe in characteristics of load which has attached (rectifiers, motors,itd.).
     Warning: The output voltage will be smaller and at the nominal current! If use rectifiers then use only half wave the rectifier (trafo must are loaded the alternating current)!

- Find fast data about parts in your catalogs or schemes with them 
     If have the any desktop PC, can he use for the 'memory' in which catalog contain data. And most importantly is that in time of 30 second can check out up to 100 databook and dont lose unnecessary time in order to only determine that in your books there is no data about this chip or the diode.
     If list and all chips, transistors and you more important parts along all schemes which owns, then these immediately will find the scheme on who has been looked for the part. If it is about chips, this has been known and more than enough for needs servicings.
     Lack this methods loses times in order to makes an inventory all parts and their associated books. For the help herein has developed small DOS program (REPORT.EXE) who from textual shortened data creates the widened text base where the every line has the data about the part, associated document and possible comment. Are converted the file very successfully was able search through with textual searchers (Norton's TS.exe or similar). REPORT.EXE can get download free of charge with the example for the writing of input data. Example is the transcript of elements from across the 500 page Jaeger of catalogs from 1994. REPORT.EXE supports macro definitions for prefixes and suffixes, numerical repetition and comment.
Example of short writing:
{BSY}                          - are given prefix, possibly and more prefixes e.g. {BSY}{BSX}...
{^C Page 123}           - given comment
15                                - entered 1. alterable part
30                                - entered 2. alterable part
{1N38}                        - new prefix
{/R}                              - are given sufix, possibly and more sufixa e.g. {/N /AN /IN}
79                                 - entered 1. alterable part
{^R83,1}                       - repetition increase for 1 to the including number 83
{/}                                  - delete sufix

  after the process gives text file:
BSY15   Page 123
BSY30   Page 123
1N3879R   Page 123
1N3880R   Page 123
1N3881R   Page 123
1N3882R   Page 123
1N3883R   Page 123
From the above example is visibly that the volume of written text has been minimized and also that the system registered is optimized for the of elements whose names strongly similar, where registers be tiresomely and lengthily.
     In our base of parts finds 100.000. recording about electronic parts for who have data. Examination typically lasts the 10 second. This presents the asset for the saving of time at search documentations.

- Extend durations POZITIV 20 spray, advice for the depositing of polish 
     Hold spray in the refrigerator. Life cycle makes longer with 6 months on more than 2.5 years. Are prepared spray in the refrigerator have used are continued and indiscriminately in the quality all the time. Before the usage spray necessary warms on 35 °C (the showering cans under the warm water and constant shaking a liquid). Will discover you another trick for the even diffusion of photo polish along the copper. Little plate cut up correctly those dimensions who us needs. Copper edges little plates easily get off so that becomes dull. Copper needs clean (e.g. CIF), good wash and will dry. Then, from the proper distance, uniformly spray in the small fatter layer.(on the total horizontal surface). Importantly is, that the depositing polish begin in horizontal moves (right-left) from below upward, without the return back or over spary!. Additional problems which appear at dryings, resolve the necessary light drying hair dryer with 50cm distances (on maximal temperature) as long as the polish not liberate solvent and stops flow along the little plate. After this, work conventionally the recommended drying of polish - sees himself instruction beside the polish. Result is fantastic. Gets the fatter layer fotolaka (without the chance that appear small holes or that gets off during developments). Smooth are the thickness along the middle and beside edges. This method gives better results from the centrifuging, when shows up attenuating the polish on the centre and growths beside edges, (whereupon often work little plates of larger dimensions so them later circumcise). In this way save the polish, time, material and nerves. Aside from this, necessary tool for work almost all already have (hair dryer) these practically have no none additional investments.
     For the illumination light can will use low cost 300W OSRAM UV lamp ULTRA -VITALUX Osram d.o.o (approximately 250 HRK). When uses paus the pattern for conduits below the 5 mm of thick glass, and the lamp has been removed 40cm time expositions are the 5 minute. In respect to the exposure 500W the halogen lamp on distances from the 15 cm have full advantages. Heating of pattern is minimally, possibility of fire negligible (if the lamp has been built in in the box for the exposition must insure the compulsory airflow) and makes possible the exposition to A4 sizes. Osram lamp can acquire at Osram d.o.o..
     For the development photo polish can will use diluted CEVOSAN. Advantage is what is fluent these easily were able dose. The correct proportion can calculate across the data about the quantity bases and necessary concentrations bases for the development. Anyway up to cca 20cm3 on 1L waters. During developments newer polish process go faster.Optimal speeds of developments is the 30 second. If goes faster, requires dilute the solution for the development. Lacquered little plates can months stand in dark boxes, but develops be longer (two to the 3 way).

- Make an exchange special bulbs on photocells with white LEDs 
     Often happened that came across photocell which operates at small bulbs which has the special acceptance, size, lens or the shape. Often puts standard bulbs impossibly because of the size, too weak light similarly.
     Solution which offers itself is directed white light emiting diodes of large luminous flux. With only 20mA (3,6V=) beside the usage preresistor was able get enough the good replacement for the special small bulb. Some times is most simply in the enclosure of incorrect small bulb install white LED diode and then change the circle power supplies so that gets the suitable polarity and necessary current power supplies.
     For the choice LED diodes recommend white LEDs from Conrad:
5mm / 5600mcd / the 20 century / 20mA counter 15 37 45-88. Price approximately the 5 euro / piece.
     Parts from Conrad of catalog can, without the lower limit on the quantity, acquire across Z-el chipoteka. White LED diodes of same characteristics can acquire from Farnella across the firm Altpro at the price of approximately 50 HRK.
     If want low cost solution (but some less sensitively), in need can use and make red high effiency LED (> 1000ucd). Majorities of sensors is the sensitiv on red light similarly as well as on white light. Red LED diameter 5mm (1000ucd) can acquire for less than two HRK.

- Avoid will use the full wave rectifier with two diodes in order to reduce warming the transformer 
     Simple calculations that shows up, that better uses the full wave rectifier with 4 diodes than with two diodes. Do use the rectifier with two diodes then the current load flows by turns through the one then through the other coil. At first view, makes that there is no the difference when use only the one coil. Do look at more carefully on the example of small transformers which have only one or two secondaries can be seen the next: Trafo with double coils has two ways more winding. In order to wire stand, must be two ways smaller square footages than when it is about once the coil. Two ways smaller square footages result in two ways larger internal resistances (2R). This means that in the full wave rectifier with two diodes, current load flows interchangeably through coils of the this disipira I * I * (2 * R) / 2 and I * I * (2 * R) / 2 in coils of secondaries. Totally I * I * 2 * R. At the full wave rectifier with 4 diodes current always flow one coil which has the resistance R (essentially that trafo are performed with the single secondary) these dissipation amounts I * I * R. Warming up the transformer comes from losses in the primary coil, core and in the secondary. If ignores losses at the core and assume that the primary coil and secondaries have same losses then can freely to say that transformers with the double secondary and full wave rectifier with two diodes warm 50 % more than the transformer with the single secondary and 4 diodes. Of course, that everyone will say, that then has losses in the voltage because of additional two diodes. However, diodes can easily will cool down on the heat sink, and and easily are exchangable. If have had chance will open low cost the charger of cumulator (after burnings), see that all have 4 diodes. Explanation is just abovementioned. Manufacturer could easily to save on two diodes, but then would have to will increase the transformer (that wind up the another secondary coil with the equal thick wire). Result trafo with more irons and copper this charger must weights (because trafo most often burns and in the connection with 4 diodes). Heat sinks for diodes usually from the aluminum which have been more than two ways lighter irony and coppers.
     Maybe are and you make some device with the full wave rectifier from two diodes. All nicely has calculated, give wind up trafo and think how are you successfully save for two diodes. Only after has observed that you trafo after the longer work on the nominal strength substantial warms. Now knows why. Strange is, that in schools, when learns rectifying connections, this not at all mentions.
     Our recommendation is: learns on somebody else's errors! Avoid rectifiers with two diodes when them alone design.

- If have the component tester on the oscilloscope, start he will use 
     Component tester is useful supplement on some oscilloscopes. Strongly is useful in the work servicings. Makes possible that mosts of discreet components examined without the removal from the complex. By this only limitations that the complex must is eliminated and all capacity empty from the charge. Component tester possibly tests:
bipolar transistors
thyristors (small SCR and in the leading)
capacity from 0,1uF up to 1000uF
outputs and inputs IC-and (the comparison)

bad elco 220uF, mag.X10 ->
component tester - loš elektrolit 220uF, mag x10
     Aside from this, very is appropriate for the searching of short-circuitings. Small trick for the protection from the destruction (does not protect you 100 % but beside little more attentions decrease the probability on nothing). Firstly empty electrolytes. And that the to by yet surer, uses the diode (connected in the series with the component tester) when look for the short-circuiting. Anode diodes join on the living end component tester. So will prevent being able the positive voltage that makes for the component to the tester. Minus by the component tester let him ground on the minus power supplies. In the event of the negative power supply turn around the diode.
     How skilled experts in electronics in the reparation of TV know that 50 % the error always had come from bad electrolytes dilemma: how know is the electrolyte good? Measurement capacitance does not give 100 % the result. For that purpose needs will use measuring device capacitance which display and factor of losses. If this has no, can will use the component tester. At checks capacity, always separates at least the one pin from the rest of circle (desolder one pin). Connecting component tester needs get ellipses or the circumference. If is ellipses horizontal or the verikalna capacity is o.k. If picture joins in the vertical line has been able stretch out of with x10 the horizontal amplification (at larger electrolytes). The additional test is test filling up. Then add the diode in the series with the component tester so that fills capacity. Take heed of the polarity, Tantalus capacity does not laugh inverse will polarize. If make a break from the couple second and try again, does picture laughs change from the interruption of last test. Take care of that hands do not empty capacity. If capacity little empties, this will see itself so what will have to fill up. Often, for the confirmation of result was able take other correct (new) the part and cares comparative test. Attention: some times and new capacity have tiny losses (defines them manufacturer) so is this best way for the establishing to the accuracies. At uses of electrolytes in impulse complexes, were able will happen that the electrolyte has the bad characteristic only on the high working frequency. Then was able will happen that measuring the component tester on 50Hz does not give the correct result, i.e. capacity seems O.K., but that is is not. In such situations recommend the preventive replacement of electrolytes with adequate (appropriate for the impulse work  - based on the specification manufacturer). Usages of standard electrolytes usually results in multiple the shorter working life, even and smaller from factory built-in parts (who not must especially are marked).
     We actively use the component tester in the inspection failure on discreet conponents already the 10 years. Cut down the time inspection is huge. Aside from this, ten way less is doubts in conclusion. Try and alone and do not disappoints. Experiment firstly on correct components (until get the routine). Combine diodes, capacity and resistance. Acquires knowledge you help that you look at as big expert who in the pair minute can elegantly to locate the failure.

- Trick for the testing qualities of the electrolytic capacity for switching applications 
     If have wanted check the quality of electrolytes for switching the application, can these easily make the usage of function generators and oscilloscopes. On the function generator adjust the square voltage 0..5V, frequencies 30kHz. How the function generator has the impedance 50 R can him directly will join on the tested electrolyte. Take care of on the polarization. Then join the oscilloscope on the electrolyte. Turn on AC connection and the amplify sensitivity of oscilloscopes in order to take measurement AC voltage. Ideal capacity will have the triangular voltage without jumps amplitudes. If jumps amplitudes larger electrolyt has been worse. Measurement of jump of voltage (dU) was able the calculated internal resistance of electrolytes. R=Rg / (2,5/dU - 1). Rg = inner resistance of generator function (50R). Measurement electrolytes same capacitance, but the different nominal voltage and different type or the manufacturer was able easily to estimate whom electrolyte most appropriate for switching application.
     Instruction: at measurements oscilloscopes probe let them fasten directly on lead out of electrolytes.

- Simple complex can roughly to measure the penetrable voltage of semiconductor 
     This simple complex easily was able measure (check) the penetrable voltage. Capacitance pumps gives the parallel voltage 600 or 1200VDC. Connecting of ordinary voltmeter with the hand towards the under scheme can measure the penetrable voltage on the formula:

Up=1200-Uv, Uv = voltage measured on the voltmeter.

     For the test up to 600V the formula is:



During connectings take care of the connection null and phases. Complex is potentially life-threatening these he recommends for use alone individuals which have enough the knowledge for the safe work!!!
Voltmeter must be with the pointer (without the amplifier)!!!
Recommend the usage of insulating transformer 220 / 220V on the entry because of the enlargement of safety
Complex after shut down of power supplies needs will empty the connecting together the test electrode for the testing (+ and -  ) in the duration at least the 30 second.


Ispitivač probojnog napona 1200/600V za poluvodiče i izolaciju

- The handy method for the check of work IC of emitting diodes 
     Many do not know that with the camera on the mobile phone or the digital camera was able detect the work IC LED of emitter. Enough in the semidarkness directs the in the tested source IC light and on LCD to the viewfinder will be seen the light blue light from IC of emitter. So easily can check you remote control does work or not.

- Repair of battery contacts 
     When leaks out the acid from batteries and damages contact often happens that the connection batteries become unsure. For the small current (up to 200mA) exists ideally adorning. Contact cleaned himself from the rust and acetic salts these then in the thin layer paint conductive polish  - liquid silver. The years-long observation of state of such contact has shown that the contact surface holds great and there is no the loss of connection. It concerns the connection backup of batteries of RAMs. This method can save and contacts for batteries in remote controls, calculators, transistors, etc. Warning: the conductive silver is not suitably for the improvement of contacts push-button and switches because under the activity frictions mechanical spreads.

- Protection of teflon top of solder pump 
        Teflon above soldr pump was able protects from the damage putting of silicone little tube across he.
The protective silicone little tube on the teflon top of solder pump.    The protective silicone little tube on the teflon top solder pump. On the example Soldapullt SS350 sees himself the silicone little tube who successfully protects the teflon top. Ab initio usages solder pump the use of the silicone little tubes of need do not change the teflon top (the last 15 year).
     For the silicone little tube was able use the part of silicone cap from old VN of transformer from TV or the monitor. Little tube is most easily straight cut off with the usual side cutter. Slikonska little tube needs be about 1mm longer from the teflon top. When waste one side little tubes were able the turned other or little shortens.      
     Observed lacks at the use follow because of the larger external diameter of top. Happens and stopping solder on the connection of teflon and little tubes.
    The positive phenomenon is that was able will improve effect absorptions solder because of the better being airtight the top pumpice and bases. The undamaged silicone little tube at the orthogonal pressure on the base can secure the airflow sideways.

Tricks for super experts in electronics: 

- Rebuild ATX PC power supply in the regulated power supply 0..5V with the current limit 0..15A
     Procedure is:
1.: strike out the documentation power supplies in the circle of regulation of voltage (with TL494)
2.: interrupt the control 12V power supplies and maybe the control of too low voltages
3.: put in the potentiometer instead of the fixed referential voltage for the adjusting of output voltage
4.: put in shunt and current comparator (with LM393) this exit joins across diodes with the cathode on the pin 4 from TL494 (dead time)
5.: put in the potentiometer for the adjusting current and that's it
      At the most requires you entire day for this reconstruction. If succeed gets this most inexpensive power supply of such characteristics!

Tricks for all: 

- Extend the life cycle of the your ordinary lamps on 220VAC
     In majority cases this difficultly makes, but if are able that build in soft start regulator can significantly will extend the life cycle bulb. From the own experience can say set to work on the example bulb, when is the used longer soft start and limit of voltage on 190V, that have forgotten on the replacement bulb on the chandelier. By this only must will take care of that the triac current to by 15 way stronger from nominal current lamps. Reason is the simple. All correct and with weaker triacs, but when the lamp burns up the weaker triac does not endure so let her burn out and he.

- Extend the duration of halogenous heaters - bulb
     Today often can find low cost heaters with halogenous heaters (ATLAS NL12 / 16). However, duration of heater is substantial short (though longer from the warrant). One from the reason is reduced resistance of heater in the cold state. During turning on of power can in the short moment be up to 7 way greater from nominal. One from solves is soft the start regulator, but exists very simple solve. In the circle of heater put in in the series suitable AC capacity. Choice capacitance along the formula C = P * 0,1315 (uF) gets that the uppermost power during start not did crosses nominal, and the heater in the finish operates at 80 % nominal power (on 90 % voltage). Formula is valid for the power supply 220V / 50Hz and power expressed in wats. Parallelly with capacity needs connect 220K (1W). The more detailed formula is:
Formula za kapacitivni ograničavač snage grijača

Capacity C is the working type for minimally 250VAC

P = power in Wats

f =  frequency in Hertzes

In =  voltage in Volts
     This solve can execute more skilled electrician, and was able use on all AC bulbs and heaters which has 3 and several times the smaller resistance in the cold state from the working value. E.g. for the bulb 40W would need put 5uF / 250VAC in the series with the bulb. Lack occupies the space, and the advantage simple and easily maintaining this resistance on net tensional stroke.
     Warning: this connection not was able will use at the staircase lightning when the staircase automatic device is performed the regulation of light.

- Prevent consequences burn in the beginning 
     Decades of checked methods for the mitigating singe and their painless recuperation. Burns from soldering irons, hot oil, hot lem similarly., and who immediately has not challenged gaping wound easily will solve if immediately lubricate the burnt place with solid soapsuds from the usual soap. The soaped place do not rinse after soapings, but he gives up that dried. Result soapings are usually reducing the chaffing injure and healing without the typical percolation. Instead of the singe after the pair day usually gets the dark brown spot, who with the time disappears without the scar. This trick come on for burns sizes next to 1cm2. If notices unusaly complications contact the doctor. This advice use only on her responsibility!

- Save money for fuel - install the auto gas on your vehicle 
     If have the gasoline motor, there is no barriers that build in the car gas. Price fuels are calculated along the kilometer is at least two ways smaller than on the gas. On modern injection machines do not generalize observes the difference in the use fuels. Drives has same characteristics as well as on the petrol. From experience more the user car gassy finds out that can expect: the stiller work of motor (especially on the neutral), less consumption the motor (experiences that the century machines were able will extend double?), clean oils in the motor (there is no the soot which would melt in the oil) the this longer duration of exhaust pipe (exhaust gases are less aggressive?)!.
     Profitability implantations in are dependent on your drive and number passed kilometers. If do across 20.000 the km yearly (or have across 600 HRK the monthly cost for the petrol), surely you paid off the building in auto gas. The high initial investment can overcome for example the self-financing. If change direction financial resource on the building in auto gas, and then because of cost reductions fuel saving cumulate will get back this same capital. Thus will put off originally the investment, but will have later many the larger benefit.
     Importance buildings in auto gas can present one aspect investments. Possibly was 90 % persons say 'yes' for the auto gas, when this would present like this: Would you like to invest 5-10 thousands of HRK in order to furthermore have the discount on the fuel from 50 %? If invest e.g. 7000kn, then at every pouring out of petrol in the tank (e.g. 40L along 6 HRK) save 120 HRK i.e. 1,7 % investments. After 59 pouring out have paid off the investment. If bunker the every 2 week, then invests pays off for 2 and half years (2360L the gas). After this the deadline are realized the saving from 2880 HRK yearly (what is that is Your net profit). Financial are looked at, are realized the interest 41 % yearly on invested funds. In the real calculation needs taken marginal costs for the road toll and acceptance test (606 HRK yearly).
     Along the last law, drive with the built-in car gas do not need the eko test and he on the acceptance test more does not carry out (the own experience in the beginning 2004 years).
     Example of the summer of LADE NIVA1.7 the carburetor (is built in CUT-OFF valve):
in the town: 1.2 HRK / km on petrol, 0,42 HRK / km on car gas
open road (to the 100 km / h): 0,64 HRK / km on the petrol, 0,32 HRK / km on car gas
building in paid off already after 10,000 km drives town
    Safety car gas in the vehicle is large. Propperly integration in and regular maintenance car gas is completely safe. Otherwise, tank of gas not was able explode. Gas is explosive only if has been mixed in the specific proportion with the air. In the tank of gas there is no the air. Larger is the probability of explosion of gasoline tank.
     If have the garage below the level of ground, was good that do not build in car gas. Gas has weighted from the air and was able cumulate in spaces under level of ground. Then exists the possibility explosions or suffocations with gas.

- Extend the service life of silicone putty 
     Hold are used and unused silicone putty in the freezer on at least -18°C. Putty concretes in the activity with the humidity from the air.Tu him this considerable has been slowed down because the all humidity in the air freezes. In this way the silicone putty can use 100 %. In the freezer may be and a few year, and that stays usable. Putty must is secured (may be the glued glue tape which prevents the access air). Before the usage he does not need heat warm on the room temperature.
     Holding of silicone putty in the freezer save the time and money. Putty you is at one's and there is no the throw unused putties.

- Protect TV, satellite receiver, domestic cinema and DVD player from the thunder 
     Although next the advice be more professional individuals unnecessary, from experience you can say that only 100 % the protection from the thunder eliminates the device from the net voltage disconnect net jacks. For the system which has the outside aerial necessary switches off and aerial and puts farther. If have the satellite receiver, also switch off and his aerial. If have the aerial with the amplifier, then the necessary disconnect adapter from the electricity. When use with telephones which have AC adapter is worth equally rule. Switch off AC adapter from the electricity and entry phone lines. Thus these will minimize the possible damage from the stroke of lightning. This especially is worth when go on the longer holiday or announces more violently the thunder bad weather. Recently have had the chance see myself that the stroke of lightning in only the one house has incapacitated 3 TV, the antenna amplifier (the adapter is O.K.), digital SAT receiver, DVD player, domestic cinema and two telephones. On SAT to the receiver is after the stroke of lightning of remain hole on the tin measures 5mm (as at welding with 75A on the narrow sheet iron). If thinks that this does not happen in your address, have the bad news for you. Last a few dangerous strokes of lightning happen there where never this has not been decades. Therefore you is better that in a few minute prevent the possible damage. Learn on somebody else's errors.

- Make the alone low cost means for the remove water calculus and by this good saves 
     Sounds incredibly, but the combination 4 volume part of vinegar (9 %) and one volume part citric acids get the means for the taking down of calculus with the ceramics, enamel, rostfrei and other. Means which will name " OLS in the testing period " present good. Does corrode rostfrei and enamel on bathtubs. Means, who let her be able acquire in shops, can you destroy enamel bathtub and chromium-plated taps.
     Must you however warn that OLS corrodes the brass and copper these he advisably does not use on such and similar metals. Also OLS in the combination with the table salt corrodes rostfrei.
     Advantage OLS-and is in the price and known structure. Components for OLS are at least double the low cost from factory means for the taking down of calculus in the household. Citric acid was able low cost buy in the packaging from the 200 gram (AGZ 5,7 HRK). From the one liter of vinegar (ARO 4,25 HRK) pours off 2 dl and replaces with the 200 gram citric acids. Thus get 1L OLS-and for 9,95 HRK. Similar factory means cost 18.32 HRK per liter. OLS dosed as well as other factory means for the taking down of calculus (equally efficient and fast).
     Warning: OLS bites into the skin this recommend avoid the longer contact with the cleanser. At activities OLS-and on the larger surface necessary air out the room (e.g. at washs bathtub).
     OLS use on the own responsibility. For possible damages do not take over the responsibility.

Tricks for users car gas (GPL) in car: 

- Reduce the of gas for 7 % without the influence on the acceleration (only for the usual carburator)
     Integrate CUT-OFF complex your gas installation. Appliance comprises from the gas valve (on the intestine towards the carburator) and electronics who he controls. Electronics gets the signal with the microswitch on the accelerator pedal (were activated in the released accelerator pedal) and with primary coils bobine (look out for number turn of machine). The gas valve closes the gas when let accelerator pedal and only when number the turn of machine falls below minimal again he includes. Electronics has been realized contactless and fast reacts at openings of valves. Functions during changedowns and at the every slowdown or lowerings down the descent (beside are dismissed accelerator pedal).

     Advantages are multiple:

Decrease fuel consumtion (7 %) and enlargement autonomies with the one tank.
100 % the breaking machine increases the safety on the slippery road
Decreases the need for the pressing brakes. In majority cases only release accelerator pedal and car slows down.
Pay off approximately on the same number of kilometers as well as are the gas device.

     Our experiences on the vehicle LADA NIVA 1.7 is excellent. Driving during breakings when drive on the car gas and gas are same. Invests pay off after 16000km. Drive already 60000km with built-in CUT OFF complex and savings on fuel go over 1750 HRK. Profit is larger from 1250 HRK (during the 5 year).

- Solution for jamming the valve of petrol dispenser on LADA NIVA 
     If drive on the car gas and has forgotten periodically transfers on the gas can you happens that permanently the high pressure and dribble uncleanness block the other valve in the petrol dispenser. Become usual that electric valve for the petrol places behind the petrol dispenser. Thus pumps pumps without the flow winning at the larger number turn of machine maximal pressure. This pressure presses the cover of second valve in the pump. Sufficient are the tiny uncleanness and that the cover jammed to these value that neither by the largest number of turn do not was able to release.
     Change pumps for the fuel do not loose the problem. Sooner or later happen this and on the new pump. From a few possible solutions appear most inexpensive and most efficient solution with one-way valves. More about that with the scheme connectings.

- Manual wheelbarrows with brake 
     Advantages brakes on wheelbarrows are:
drives of loads on the descent has lightened than on flat  - wheelbarrows more do not draw down the hill
during discharging (the concrete, grounds, cement, similarly.) wheelbarrows do not run  - can stop
the larger safety at movements uphill  - if wheelbarrows start back always can easily will stop
and in doing so are and kingfish in the town
Manual wheelbarrows with brake

     In order to most simply make wheelbarrows with the brake needs:

throw out the existing wheel
put the secondhand wheel from motor scooters (the front or last)
the added reinforcement and fastening forks the brake  - without the reinforcement surely will break carriers of wheel
the added handle with the wire cable for the breaking

     By the use take care of that the wheel there is no the air on beds that would not crumble small balls. Also, needs good tightened screws axes.

     Reconstruction can easily will execute any locksmith.

     Wheelbarrows with the brake use already the 20 year and has shown excellent. Especially at concretings and carriage load on the descent.